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(Mr. G. A. Macmillan) iv. I hope that there may be many more like you, for itwould prove a public blessing." "Thefact is," he added, "I was driven to pursue; it was too trying to lookon and see our men suffer so badly, and be unable to retaliate.However, when we did charge, there is no denying the truth of what yousay; we were not a whit more able to injure the enemy, while we hadconsiderable difficulty in beating a retreat ourselves. Withhim you have murdered the very men to whom you gave your solemn wordand oath, and to the rest of us turned traitors; and, having so done, 39you join hand with our enemies to come against us." I confine myself to the following facts,which are known to all. For the momentthen they bivouacked right happily; they had their provisions, theyhad also many memories of the labours that were now passed; seeingthat the last seven days spent in traversing the country of theCarduchians had been one long continuous battle, which had cost themmore suffering than the whole of their troubles at the hands of theking and Tissaphernes put together. Cf. "I know," he added, "there 27will be no lack of youngsters to follow where I lead." And as other men pride themselveson piety and truth and righteousness, so Menon prided himself on acapacity for fraud, on the fabrication of lies, on the mockery andscorn of friends. "If any one has any better plan, we need not adopt mine; but if not,suppose Cheirisophus takes the lead, as he is a Lacedaemonian, and thetwo eldest generals take in charge the two wings respectively, whilstTimasion and I, the two youngest, will for the present guard the rear. Did You Know? 14 supra; Justin, ix. Soteridas was notspared by the rest of the men. But if youimagine that you, on your side, have any better reason to mistrust theking and me, than we you, listen to me in turn, and I will undeceiveyou. Will he not go all lengths so that, by inflicting on us theextreme of ignominy and torture, he may rouse in the rest of mankind aterror of ever marching against him any more? Therearguard of the Hellenes suffered for a while severely without beingable to retaliate, for the Cretans had a shorter range than thePersians, and at the same time, being light-armed troops, they laycooped up within the ranks of the heavy infantry, while the javelinmen again did not shoot far enough to reach the enemy's slingers. But I will go further andstate to you the reasons of my confidence, that you on your side willdesire our friendship. After the generals had been seized, and the captains and soldiers who 1formed their escort had been killed, the Hellenes lay in deepperplexity--a prey to painful reflections. 480, and at Plataea and Mycale, B.C. But turning to matters human, you I lookupon as our greatest blessing in this present time. You know, I need hardlyremind you, it is not numbers or strength that gives victory in war;but, heaven helping them, to one or other of two combatants it is 42given to dash with stouter hearts to meet the foe, and such onset, innine cases out of ten, those others refuse to meet. From this place they marched one stage of six parasangs to a greatdeserted fortress [which lay over against the city], and the name ofthat city was Mespila[3]. Thank heaventhey did not come upon us in any great force, but were only a handfulof men; so that the injury they did us was not large, as it might havebeen; and at least it has served to show us what we need. These proposals were carried, and that night two hundred slingers wereenrolled, and next day as many as fifty horse and horsemen passedmuster as duly qualified; buff jackets and cuirasses were provided forthem, and a commandant of cavalry appointed to command--Lycius, theson of Polystratus, by name, an Athenian. With these words on his lips he got up, in order thatwhat was needful might be done at once without delay. oratory. "It only rests for me to name the one thing which I look upon as thegreatest of all. Thenight advances; with the day, it is like enough, the enemy will beupon us. Rule he soughtafter only as a stepping-stone to larger spoils. They were under the command ofStratocles, a Cretan. Xenophon having read the letter, consulted Socrates the Athenian,whether he should accept or refuse the invitation. As soon as they had halted within earshot,Ariaeus said: "Hellenes, Clearchus being shown to have committedperjury and to have broken the truce, has suffered the penalty, and heis dead; but Proxenus and Menon, in return for having giveninformation of his treachery, are in high esteem and honour. Full view only. But Xenophon, takingthe most active-bodied of the rearguard, began running back at fullspeed to the passage facing the egress into the hills of Armenia,making a feint of crossing at that point to intercept their cavalry onthe river bank. the wreath, an action which the soldiers would perform symbolically, if Grote is right in his interpretation of the passage, "Hist. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. He was anagent in disguise; in fact, a relation of Tissaphernes was inattendance to keep a check on his loyalty. And when asked whether therewas any point on it difficult to pass, he replied that there was a colwhich it would be impossible to pass unless it were occupied inadvance. Surely it belongs to people altogether without resources,who are helplessly struggling in the toils of fate, and are villainsto boot, to seek accomplishment of their desires by perjury to heavenand faithlessness to their fellows. On the 10other hand, the Asiatic cavalry, even while fleeing, poured volleys ofarrows behind their backs, and wounded the pursuers; while theHellenes must fall back fighting every step of the way they hadmeasured in the pursuit; so that by the end of that day they had notgone much more than three miles; but in the late afternoon theyreached the villages. This applies to the Pisidians also; and Iam told there are many other such tribes besides. From the highground down the sheer steep they poured a volley of darts,slingstones, and arrows, which they discharged "under the lash[8],"wounding many, until they got the better of the Hellenic light troops,and drove them for shelter behind the heavy infantry, so that this daythat arm was altogether useless, huddling in the mob of sutlers, both 26slingers and archers alike. When the Hellenes perceived that they were preparing to retire, andthat the order was being given, the herald's cry, "Pack up forstarting," might be heard before the enemy was fairly out of earshot.For a while the Asiatics paused, as if unwilling to be gone; but asnight closed in, off they went, for it did not suit their notions ofexpediency to set off on a march and arrive by night. The party with the guide made a circuit and surprised the enemy'sguards seated round their fire, and after killing some, and drivingout the rest, took their places, thinking that they were in possessionof the height. 8) says that Xenophon "trained his archers to short compass, who had been accustomed to the point blank," but this is surely not Xenophon's meaning. I think I can dealwith them all; they shall cease from being a constant distubance toyour peace and prosperity. I shouldnot be surprised, then, if the enemy were to hang on our heels and dogus as we retire, like cowardly curs which rush out at the passer-byand bite him if they can, but when you turn upon them they run away.Such will be their tactics, I take it. Theirchief fear was that the high pass over the mountains must be occupiedin advance: and a general order was issued, that after supper everyone should get his kit together for starting, and repose, in readinessto follow as soon as the word of command was given. Think not I am going to saythat you put to shame in any way your ancestry--far from it. But,granted that the rivers do bar our passage, and that guides are notforthcoming, what care we? The words were scarcely spokenwhen someone sneezed[2], and with one impulse the soldiers bowed inworship; and Xenophon proceeded: "I propose, sirs, since, even as wespoke of safety, an omen from Zeus the Saviour has appeared, we vow avow to sacrifice to the Saviour thank-offerings for safe deliverance,wheresoever first we reach a friendly country; and let us couple withthat vow another of individual assent, that we will offer to the restof the gods 'according to our ability.' They gave him blows, they pelted him,they showered him with abuse, till they compelled him to take back hisshield and march on; and the other, remounting, led them on horsebackas long as the footing held; but when the ground became too steep, heleft his horse and pressed forward on foot, and so they foundthemselves on the summit before the enemy. No river is impassablethroughout; whatever difficulties it may present at some distance fromits source, you need only make your way up to the springhead, andthere you may cross it without wetting more than your ankles. historians among the contemporaries of Alexander, such as Ptolemy, Nay, there are some whichyou will not be able to cross at all, unless we transport you to theother side. Arrian, iv. Isee there are plenty of sheep and goats and asses. Finally the resolution to which they camewas that they must force a passage through the hills into theterritory of the Kurds; since, according to what their informants toldthem, when they had once passed these, they would find themselves inArmenia--the rich and large territory governed by Orontas; and fromArmenia, it would be easy to proceed in any direction whatever.Thereupon they offered sacrifice, so as to be ready to start on themarch as soon as the right moment appeared to have arrived. See also Aelian (Varia They were Proxenus the Boeotian, Menon theThessalian, Agias the Arcadian, Clearchus the Laconian, and Socratesthe Achaean; while the captains remained at the doors. The man is a disgrace to his ownfatherland and the whole of Hellas, that, being a Hellene, he is whathe is.". It was a narrow mountainspur[9] overhanging the descent into the plain. Thisbeing so, Xenophon thought there was nothing for it but to charge, andcharge they did; some of the heavy and light infantry, who wereguarding the rear, with him; but for all their charging they did notcatch a single man. "and the men behind to pass him by, as he could but ill keep up the pace.". But if the life of a soldier was a passion with him, he was none theless a soldier born, as herein appears; danger was a delight to him;he courted it, attacking the enemy by night or by day; and indifficulties he did not lose his head, as all who ever served in acampaign with him would with one consent allow. ix. At this moment his eye fell onthe peak of the mountain, rising immediately above their army, and hecould see an approach leading from it to the crest in question wherethe enemy lay. His fee was 100 minae. Cheirisophus was at the time away in a village with aparty gathering provisions. Well,then! So at the firstglimpse of daylight he came to Cheirisophus and told him that he hadhopes that all things would go well, and related to him his dream. and all those rivers, on whose banks wecan deal craftily by you, checking and controlling and choosing theright number of you whom we care to fight! Herodotus, vii. After that, the generalsresolved that it would be better to proclaim open war, without truceor herald, as long as they were in the enemy's country; for they usedto come and corrupt the soldiers, and they were even successful withone officer--Nicarchus[1], an Arcadian, who went off in the night withabout twenty men. A shadow of deep despair again descended on theirsouls, whichever way they turned their eyes--in front lay the river sodifficult to ford; over, on the other side, a new enemy threatening tobar the passage; on the hills behind, the Carduchians ready to fallupon their rear should they once again attempt to cross. 479, on the same day. The detachment which came to meetXenophon's men, carried away by their valour, advanced further thanthey had need to, and had to cross back again in the rear ofXenophon's men, and of these too a few were wounded. Such wereyour forefathers, and their sons are ye. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] Home Collections/Texts Perseus Catalog Research Grants Open Source About Help. Why then, with all theseavenues of attack, this machinery of war, open to us, not one of whichcan be turned against ourselves, why should we select from among themall that method, which alone in the sight of God is impious and of manabominable? Having done that, they proceeded to make their breakfasts.While they were breakfasting, Mithridates came with about thirtyhorsemen, and summoning the generals within earshot, he thus addressedthem: "Men of Hellas, I have been faithful to Cyrus, as you know well,and to-day I am your well-wisher; indeed, I am here spending my daysin great fear: if then I could see any salutory course in prospect, Ishould be disposed to join you with all my retainers. Back to Full BooksFull Books For this reason theyalways encamped at a distance from the Hellenes. [1] So it is said of the Russian General Skobelef, that he had a strange custom of going into battle in his cleanest uniform, perfurmed, and wearing a diamond-hilted sword, "in order that," as he said, "he might die in his best attire. Havingfinally reached a point at which the Tigris was absolutelyimpassable owing to its depth and breadth, while there was nopassage along the bank itself, and the Carduchian hills hungsheer over the river, the generals took the resolution abovementioned of forcing a passage through the mountains. have we not horsemen enough, or infantry, orwhatever other arm you like, whereby we may be able to injure you,without risk of suffering in return? BOOK I. Darius and Parysatis had two sons: the elder was named Artaxerxes, and 1. the younger Cyrus. Anabasis definition: the march of Cyrus the Younger and his Greek mercenaries from Sardis to Cunaxa in... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples They resolved further tolet go free all the lately-captured slaves in the host; for the paceof the march was necessarily rendered slow by the quantity of animalsand prisoners, and the number of non-combatants in attendance on these 13was excessive, while, with such a crowd of human beings to satisfy,twice the amount of provisions had to be procured and carried. It appears again fifty years later in the author's pamphlet "On Revenues," chapters i. and vi. In fact we, on our stout shanks,are better mounted than those cavalry fellows; there they hang on totheir horses' necks in mortal dread, not only of us, but of fallingoff; while we, well planted upon earth, can deal far heavier blows toour assailants, and aim more steadily at who we will. If, then, we are toexclude them from all possibility of injuring us as we march, we mustget slingers as soon as possible and cavalry. The work was written in the second century AD (ref.- p.xiii), and pertains to the life of Alexander III (ref. As I dwell on thesematters, I confess, the idea of your feeling mistrust of us is soastonishing, that I would give much to discover the name of the man,who is so clever of speech that he can persuade you that we harbourdesigns against you." Infantry, too, drawn up in line upon the banks above thecavalry, threatened to prevent them debouchng into Armenia. Anabasis definition is - a going or marching up : advance; especially : a military advance. Later writers knew of a small kingdom here at the time of the Roman occupation, ruled by native princes, who after Tigranes II (about 80 B.C.) Then there are the Egyptians[2]. One of the History. When this detachment were once posted above their pursuers, thelatter desisted from attacking the main body in its descent, for fearof being cut off and finding themselves between two assailants. Agias the Arcadian and Socrates the Achaean were both among thesufferers who were put to death. Do that, andtheir spirits will soon revive wonderfully. "Now for it, brave sirs; bethink youthat this race is for Hellas!--now or never!--to find your boys, yourwives; one small effort, and the rest of the march we shall pursue inpeace, without ever a blow to strike; now for it." only this one road,which you see, going straight up, and on it all that crowd of men whohave seized and are guarding the single exit. After this Cheirisophus spoke. Let all those who are infavour of this proposal hold up their hands." Towhichsoever of us shall prove the better men, will they fall asguerdons; and the gods themselves are the judges of the strife. was the best among the numerous historians of Alexander. when you have appointed all the commanders necessary, it wouldonly be opportune, I take it, if you were to summon the rest of thesoldiers and speak some words of encouragement. 18) says: Who was there now to furnish them with amarket? But Xenophon cut him short. They could not close their eyes for verypain and yearning after their fatherlands or their parents, the wifeor child whom they never expected to look upon again. speeches, but wherever he does he shows a profound knowledge of man; The Carduchians, seeing that the remnant left was the merest handful 30(for many even of those whose duty it was to remain had gone off intheir anxiety to protect their beasts of burden, or their personalkit, or their mistresses), bore down upon them valorously, and openedfire with slingstones and arrows. Advice Rejected by the Persian Generals. Public Domain, Google-digitized. 3; xii. . a general toundertake the work? But when they had reached a point in a line with the ford, and thecliff-like banks of the river, they grounded arms, and firstCheirisophus himself placed a wreath upon his brows, and throwing off 17his cloak[3], resumed his arms, passing the order to all the rest todo the same, and bade the captains form their companies in open orderin deep columns, some to left and some to right of himself. Page 60 - The country was a plain throughout, as even as the sea, and full of wormwood; and if any other kind of shrubs or reeds grew there, they had all an aromatic smell, but no trees could be seen. They were, moreover, excellent archers, using bows nearly three cubitslong and arrows more than two cubits. Here then they passed the night, but at the first glimpse of dawn theymarched stealthily and in battle order against the enemy. Nor can I see whatbetter force you will find to help you in chastising them than thiswhich marches at my back to-day. Accordingly Xenophon at once poured out a libation himself, and badethe two young fellows fill the cup and pray to the gods, who showed tohim this vision and to them a passage, to bring all other blessingsfor them to accomplishment. The Persian bows are ofgreat size, so that the Cretans found the arrows which were picked upserviceable, and persevered in using their enemies' arrows, andpractised shooting with them, letting them fly upwards to a greatheight[6]. The first and weightiest reason is that the oaths, which we tookin the sight of heaven, are a barrier to mutual hostility. Cheirisophus retorted: "That isnot quite my view; I say, let us do a little burning ourselves, andthey will cease all the quicker. ", Throughout this speech he seemed to Clearchus to be speaking thetruth, and he rejoined: "Then are not those worthy of the worst 24penalties who, in spite of all that exists to cement our friendship,endeavour by slander to make us enemies?" As soon as they were all met, they seated themselves in frontof the place d'armes: the assembled generals and officers, numberingabout a hundred. Retiring from the sacrifice, thegenerals and officers issued an order to the troops to take theirbreakfasts; and while Xenophon was taking his, two young men camerunning up to him, for every one knew that, breakfasting or supping,he was always accessible, or that even if asleep any one was welcometo awaken him who had anything to say bearing on the business of war. Lucian, Alex., 2), that Arrian So, when Mithridates had come up with them,and they were well within arrow and sling shot, the bugle sounded thesignal to the Hellenes; and immediately the detachment under ordersrushed to close quarters, and the cavalry charged. Here were they at theking's gates, and on every side environing them were many hostilecities and tribes of men. Great as his merits thus Thelieutenant-governor of it was Tiribazus, the king's friend, andwhenever the latter paid a visit, he alone had the privilege ofmounting the king upon his horse. A good solder! As a rule, when the word was so passedup, Cheirisophus slackened; but sometimes instead of slackening,Cheirisophus quickened, sending down a counter-order to the rear tofollow on quickly. But the rest visited the ranks, and wherever ageneral was left, they summoned the general; where he was gone, thelieutenant-general; and where again the captain alone was left, thecaptain. At that time,it was to win a throne for Cyrus that you showed your bravery; to-day,when the struggle is for your own salvation, what is more natural thanthat you should show yourselves braver and more zealous still. am I waiting till I am oldermysef and of riper age? With these I shall couple the skins to one another; then Ishall moor each skin by attaching stones and letting them down likeanchors into the water. 94, "ever feeding on the Lotus and forgetful of returning.".

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